Document Type : Research Paper


Benefit from the spin off companies as practical strategy for commercialization technologies especially high technologies in recent years, has a special place among experts and policy makers. Based on this goal, this paper examines the concepts and important issues regarding the formation and the development of spin off companies and the factors affecting the process. Studying the theoretical concepts associated with these companies shows the different approaches to the issue. Beside the definitions and the different patterns of commercialization, such as spin off companies, also there is an important issue that is essentially business processes and patterns of new technologies and products have been developed in advanced countries and do not necessarily use them in less developed countries for leading to technology commercialization, because agents and numerous challenges in developing countries on the way to technology commercialization and, in particular the creation of spin off companies, that there is not in developed countries.


Main Subjects

[1]       Braun-Thürmann, M. L.; Matthies, H.; Potthast, J.; Truffer, B.; Production of Knowledge Revisited: The Impact of Academic Spin-Offs on Public Research Performance in Europe (PROKNOW).
[2]       Tübke, A.; "Success factors of corporate spin-offs", Springer Science & Business Media, Vol. 2, 2004.
[3]       شرع پسند، محمرضا؛ حجازی، سیدرضا؛ یدالهی فارسی، جهانگیر؛ "شناسایی شایستگیهای اصلی موثر در شکلگیری شرکتهای زایشی"، سومین کنفرانس مدیریت اجرایی، 1391.
[4]       Djokovic, D.; Souitaris, V.; "Spinouts from academic institutions: a literature review with suggestions for further research", The Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 33, Issue 3, pp. 225-247, 2008.
[5]       ذوالفقاری، عاطفه؛ حجازی، سیدرضا؛ فرهودی، آرتا؛ "جایگاهشرکت­هایزایشیدانشگاهیدر توسعهکارآفرینیدردانشگاه­ها"، فصلنامه تخصصی پارک­ها و مراکز رشد، دوره 7، شماره 27، صص 52-45، 1390.
[6]       موسایی، احمد؛ "طراحیمدلیجهتتعیینفرصت­هاوتجاری­سازیآنهادرمراکزتحقیقوتوسعه"، رشد فناوری، دوره 4، شماره 14، صص 21-13، 1387.

[7]       اختیازاده، احمد؛ "مدل رشد شرکت‌های زایشی دانشگاهی"، فصلنامه علوم مدیریت ایران، دوره 8، شماره 31، صص 87-61، 1392. 

[8]       Wachtell, L. Rosen; Katz; (2013). Spin-off guide.[Online] Available: http://www. wlrk. com/(May, 2013).
[9]       Lesákova, L.; "The role of business incubators in supporting the SME start-up", Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, Vol. 9, Issue 3, pp. 85-95, 2012.
[10]   Egeln, J.; Gottschalk, S.; Rammer, C.; "Location decisions of spin-offs from public research institutions", Industry and innovation, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pp. 207-223, 2004.
[11]   The Technology Commercialization Toolbox; Depository Services Program (Canada), 37 pages, 1999.
[12]   Auerswald, P. E.; Branscomb, L.; Start-ups and spin-offs: Collective entrepreneurship between invention and innovation, Chap. 4 in The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Policy: Governance, Start-Ups, and Growth in the U.S. Knowledge Economy, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
[13]    ضیایی، مظاهر؛ "اهمیت تعدد و تنوع منابع در موفقیت فرآیند ایجاد شرکتهای زایشی"، فصلنامه تخصصی پارک‌ها و مراکز رشد، سال هشتم، شماره 32، صص 61-54، 1391.
[14]   Aura, L. C.; "Economics And Management Of Innovation, Technology And Organizational Change", Hotel Comwell Rebild Bakker, Aalborg, Denmark: Paper to be presented at the DRUID-DIME Academy Winter 2009 PhD Conference, 2009.
[15]   Carnegie Mellon; Formation of Carnegie Mellon UniversityCMU/Spin-Off Companies. Pittsburgh, PA 15213: Center for Technology Transfer and Enterprise, 2011.
[16]   Everaere, C.; Laviolette, E. M.; "L’essaimage en PME: une forme vertueuse de développement par excroissance", 23e Colloque annuel du conseil canadien des PME et de l’entrepreneuriat, 2004.
[17]   Filion, L.; Luc, D.; "lessaimage dentreprises, vers des nouvelles pratiques entrepreneuriales", collection entreprendre, transcontinental et fondation de l’entrepreneurship, 2004.
[18]   Shane, S. A.; Academic entrepreneurship: University spinoffs and wealth creation, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004.
[19]   Heirman, A.; Clarysse, B.; "How and why do research-based start-ups differ at founding? A resource-based configurational perspective", The Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 29, Issue 3-4, pp. 247-268, 2004.
[20]   Berbegal-Mirabent, J.; Ribeiro-Soriano, D. E.; García, J. L. S.; "Can a magic recipe foster university spin-off creation?", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 68, Issue 11, pp. 2272-2278, 2015.
[21]   Aaboen, L.; Laage-Hellman, J.; Lind, F.; Öberg, C.; Shih, T.; "Exploring the roles of university spin-offs in business networks", Industrial Marketing Management, 2016.
[22]   Corsi, C.; Prencipe, A.; "Improve Metropolitan Competitiveness Through Innovation. The Critical and Moderating Role of University Spin-offs", Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 223, pp. 305-312, 2016.
[23]   Treibich, T.; Konrad, K.; Truffer, B.; "A dynamic view on interactions between academic spin-offs and their parent organizations", Technovation, Vol. 33, Issue 12, pp. 450-462, 2013.
[24]   Ortín-Ángel, P.; Vendrell-Herrero, F.; "University spin-offs vs. other NTBFs: Total factor productivity differences at outset and evolution", Technovation, Vol. 34, Issue 2, pp. 101-112, 2014.
[25]   Sternberg, R.; "Success factors of university-spin-offs: Regional government support programs versus regional environment", Technovation, Vol. 34, Issue 3, pp. 137-148, 2014.
[26]   Aghion, P.; Fally, T.; Scarpetta, S.; "Credit constraints as abarrier to the entry and post-entry growth of firms", Economic Policy, Vol. 22, Issue 52, pp. 731-790, 2007.
[27]   Bathelt, H.; Kogler, D. F.; Munro, A. K.; "A knowledge-based typology of university spin-offs in the context of regional economic development", Technovation, Vol. 30, Issue 9, pp. 519-532, 2010.
[28]  Sternberg, R.; "Success factors of university-spin-offs: Regional government support programs versus regional environment", Technovation, Vol. 34, Issue 3, pp. 137-148, 2014.
[29]  Rasmussen, E.; Mosey, S.; Wright, M.; "The influence of university departments on the evolution of entrepreneurial competencies in spin-off ventures", Research Policy, Vol. 43, Issue 1, pp. 92-106, 2014.