Document Type : Research Paper


Chairman of the Passive Defense Committee



Developing new capabilities is a complex process that involves continuous learning of technology and organizational knowledge. In the past, researchers have proposed a learning hierarchy model to explain the development ability of companies in developing countries. It has also been suggested that these companies compete on the basis of the production capabilities of a simple knowledge base. Rough ideas about sequences and steps, especially at the company level, can be misleading. The learning processes that underlie knowledge accumulation and development require technical capabilities as well as organizational knowledge management. An important aspect of this learning involves discarding competencies that may have been useful in previous courses but have not been introduced to new environments. The link between experience and production is still needed but not enough to develop innovative capabilities. Therefore, learning at the company level is neither automatic nor linear, but requires deliberate investment in various learning mechanisms. In the case of biopharmaceutical companies, due to the advanced nature of this type of industry, it was found that companies need a diverse set of learning mechanisms and the performance and implementation of a diverse set of learning processes, plays a key role in the accumulation of technological capabilities. In these industries, companies need a consistent strategy to manage and organize a diverse set of learning processes. The learning process is also affected by the absorber capacity. At the same time, the development of biotechnology is carried out by government-sponsored research and development programs.


  • Dutrénit, G.; “The transition from buildingup innovative technological capabilities to leadership by latecomer firms”, Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, 2007.
  • Tzokasa, N.; Young Ah., Kim; Hammad, A.; Al-Dajani, H.; “Absorptive capacity and performance: The role of customer relationship and technological capabilities in high-tech SMEs”, Industrial Marketing Management, 2015.
  • Kiamehr, M.; Hobday, M.; Hamedi, M.; “Latecomer firm strategies in complex product systems (CoPS): Thecase of Iran’s thermal electricity generation systems”, Research Policy, 44, Issue 6, pp. 1240-1251, July 2015.
  • Kim, L.; “The Dynamics of Technological Learning in Industrialisation”, international social science journal, Vol. 53, Issue 168, pp. 297-308, 2002.
  • Fujita, M.; Exploiting linkages for building technological capabilities: Vietnam’s motorcycle component suppliers under Japanese and Chineseinfluence, Springer Science & Business Media, 2014.
  • Kale, D.; “The Distinctive Patterns of Dynamic Learning and Inter-firm Differences in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry”, British Journal of Management,Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 1-43, 2010.
  • Zheng, Y.; Jing, Liu; George, G.; “The dynamic impact of innovative capability and inter-firm network on firm valuation: A longitudinal study of biotechnology start-ups”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 25, Issue 6, pp. 593-609, 2010.
  • Basant, R.; “Intellectual property protection, regulation and innovation in developing economies: the case of the Indian pharmaceutical industry”, Innovation and Development, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp 115-133, 2011.
  • Zhang, F.; Cooke, P.; Wu, F.; “State-sponsored Research and Development: A Case Study of China's Biotechnology”, regional studies, Vol. 45, Issue 5, pp. 575-595, 2011.
  • Genet, C.; Errabi, K.; Gauthier, C.; “Which model of technology transfer for nanotechnology? A comparison with biotech and microelectronics”, technovation, Vol. 32, Issue 3-4, pp. 205-215, 2012.
  • Cui, A. S.; “The impact of customer involvement on new product development: contingent and substitutive effects”, journal of product innovation management, Vol. 34, Issue 1, pp. 60-80, 2017.


  • Akesson, M.; Skalen, P.; Edvardsson, B.; Stalhammar, A.; “Value proposition test-driving for service innovation how frontline employees innovate value propositions”, journal of service theory and practice, Vol. 26, Issue 3, pp. 338–362, 2016.


  • Lim, C.; Maglio, P.P.; clarifying the concept of smart service system, Handbook of Service Science, pp. 349-376, 2019.
  • Rönnberg Sjödin, D.; “Barriers and conditions of open operation: a customer perspective on value co-creation for integrated product-service solutions”, Technology Marketing, Vol. 12, Issue 1, pp. 90-111, 2017.