Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student, Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2 : Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Management, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Management, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran.



The purpose of this research is to design an Entrepreneurial learning pattern based on the Failure experiences of Iran's Superior entrepreneurs. The research method was mixed with exploratory-sequential design, phenomenological method and applied-developmental goal. The statistical population of the study included elites and academic experts in entrepreneurship management. In this study, using semi-structured purposive sampling method, 24 semi-structured interviews conducted with entrepreneurs and university professors in the field of entrepreneurship management. In the quantitative section, by sampling the software sufficiently, one hundred entrepreneurs and students active in entrepreneurship answered the researcher-made questionnaire extracted from the qualitative section. Qualitative data analysis to achieve saturation and theoretical consensus for open, axial and selective coding of research categories in seven research constructs and its quantitative analysis performed with Smart pls statistical software. Based on the results, the entrepreneurial learning model based on the failure experiences of Iran's top entrepreneurs included seven constructs of entrepreneurial experiences, influential context, barriers, motivators, enablers, attractions and consequences. In the quantitative results, the relationship between the categories and structures of the model and the quality of the effect size of the categories of each structure evaluated as above average and strong. The fit of the research model was appropriate and robust (GOF = 653.0). The relationship between positive and significant research model constructs (T 58 58.2) confirmed at 99% confidence level. Finally, managers and young entrepreneurs in Iran are advised to implement appropriate operational plans to apply the model of this research, by modifying some deterrent processes, to try to increase the above-mentioned consequences and use the failure experiences of Iran's top entrepreneurs in Be diligent in entrepreneurial learning.


  • فنایی مرحمت، لیلا؛ زالی، محمدرضا؛ رضوانی، مهران؛ کردنائیج، اسداله؛ "ارائه مدل مفهومی یادگیری کارآفرینانه سازمانی"، مطالعات رفتار سازمانی، دوره 6، شماره 3، صص 54-33، 1396.
  • محمدی الیاسی، قنبر؛ زعفریان، رضا؛ مافی، بهاره؛ "شناسایی منابع و روش های یادگیری کارآفرینان اینترنتی ایران: سنخ شناسی و اولویت بندی روش های یادگیری"، مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دوره 8، شماره 2، صص 392-373، 1395.
  • Danneels, E.; Vestal, A.; “Normalizing vs. analyzing: Drawing the lessons from failure to enhance firm innovativeness”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 35, Issue 1, 105903, 2020.
  • Cannon, M. D.; Edmondson, A. C.; “Confronting failure: Antecedents and consequences of shared beliefs about failure in organizational work groups”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 161-177, 2001.


  • Rusdiana, A. Setia; R. Muin, A.; Abdillah, A.; “Management of Student Entrepreneurship Development at the West Java-Indonesia Private Islamic College”, International Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 9, Issue 6, pp. 286-297, 2020.

URL: 6 p286.

  • Besra, E.; Rahman, H.; “How do we perceive failure? Introducing the integrative model of entrepreneurial failure”, In Advances in Business, Management and Entrepreneurship, CRC Press, pp. 1006-1014, 2020.
  • Page, J.; Söderbom, M.; “Is small beautiful? Small enterprise, aid and employment in Africa”, African Development Review, 27, pp. 44–55, 2015.

  • Patel, N.; 90% Of Startups Fail: Here's What You Need to Know About The 10%, Jan 16, 2015,10:00am EST.

  • Cope, J.; “Entrepreneurial learning from failure: An interpretative phenomenological analysis”, Journal of business venturing, Vol. 26, Issue 6, pp. 604-623. ‏2011
  • Shepherd, Dean A.; Williams, Trenton A.; Wolfe, Marcus T. Patzelt, H. (2016). Learning from Entrepreneurial Failure: Emotions, Cognitions, and Actions. Publisher: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978-1-107-12927-6.
  • Cannon, M. D.; Edmondson, A. C.; “Failing to learn and learning to fail (intelligently): How great organizations put failure to work to innovate and improve”, Long range planning, Vol. 38, Issue 3, pp. 299-319, 2005.
  • Politis, D.; Gabrielsson, J.; “Entrepreneurs' attitudes towards failure: An experiential learning approach”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 2009.
  • Ahmad, N. H.; Seet, P. S.; “Dissecting behaviours associated with business failure: A qualitative study of SME owners in Malaysia and Australia”, Asian Social Science, Vol. 5, Issue 9, pp. 98-104, 2009.
  • Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Boso, N.; Antwi-Agyei, I.; “The effects of business failure experience on successive entrepreneurial engagements: An evolutionary phase model”, Group & Organization Management, Vol. 43, Issue 4, pp. 648-682, 2018.
  • Shepherd, D. A.; Lockett, A.; Lyon, S. J.; “Life after business failure: The process and consequences of business failure for entrepreneurs”, Journal of management, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 163-202, 2013.
  • Shepherd, D. A.; “Learning from business failure: Propositions of grief recovery for the selfemployed”, The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 318-328, 2003.
  • Minniti, M.; Bygrave, W.; “A dynamic model of entrepreneurial learning”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 25, Issue 3, pp. 5-16, 2001.
  • Yamakawa, Y.; Peng, M.W.; Deeds, D.L.; “Rising from the ashes: cognitive determinants of venture growth after entrepreneurial failure”, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Vol. 39 No. 2, pp. 209-236, 2015.
  • Hägg, G.; Kurczewska, A.; “Toward a Learning Philosophy Based on Experience in Entrepreneurship Education”, Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 2019.

  • Wei, J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.; Gong, Y.; “Research on factors affecting the entrepreneurial learning from failure: an interpretive structure model”, Frontiers in psychology, No. 10, 1304, 2019.

  • Sorenson, O.; “Social networks and the geography of entrepreneurship”, Small Business Economics, No. 51, pp. 527–537, 2018.

  • Walsh, Grace S; Cunningham, James A.; “Regenerative failure and attribution: Examining the underlying processes affecting entrepreneurial learning”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Vol. 23, Issue 4, pp. 688-707, 2017.

  • Atsan, N.; “Failure experiences of entrepreneurs: Causes and learning outcomes”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, No. 235, pp. 435-442, 2016.
  • Cohen, J.; Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, Second Edition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1988.
  • Chin, W. W.; “The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling”, Modern methods for business research, Vol. 295, Issue 2, pp. 295-336, 1998b
  • Henseler, J.; Ringle, C. M.; Sinkovics, R. R.; The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing, In New challenges to international marketing, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009.