Document Type : Research Paper


1 Business Management, Faculty of Management, Islamic Azad University, Tehran South Branch

2 Technology Management Ph.D. student


According to the theory of open innovation, organizations are better off to open their doors and interact with their environment to innovate and compete in the market. According to this principle, organizations do not need to do all activities related to the research and development of their products or technologies within the organization, but can collaborate with their environment in this respect. However, observing the environment, identifying all the required technologies of the organization, and even identifying customers to sell the unused technologies of the operating organization is very difficult and less organizationally able to carry out these processes alone. As a result, they need a bridge called intermediaries to link organizations to the environment. In this paper, we intend to check the origin of the intermediaries from the two dimensions of open innovation and markets, as well as the analysis and categorization of intermediary functions in the process of technology and innovation management. Finally, with the focus group method and through experts' opinions, the key function for intermediaries was extracted.


Main Subjects

[1]   تید، جو؛ بسنت، جان(ترجمه: آراستی، محمدرضا؛ شاوردی، مرضیه؛ رستمی، مرضیه؛ کرمی­پور، آزیتا؛ محبوبی، جواد؛ نیلفروشان، هادی)؛ مدیریت نوآوری، یکپارچه‌سازی تغییرات فناورانه، بازار و سازمان، موسسه خدمات فرهنگی رسا، تهران، جلد اول، ویراست چهارم، 1394.
[2]   چسبرو، هنری ویلیام(ترجمه: باقری، کامران؛ شاوردی، مرضیه)؛ نوآوری باز: پارادایم نوین آفرینش و تجاری‌سازی فناوری، موسسه خدمات فرهنگی رسا، تهران، چاپ دوم، 1391.
[3]   ذوالفقاری، عاطفه؛ زندحسامی، حسام؛ "چشم‌انداز آینده نقش شبکه‌سازی در افزایش مزیت رقابتی از طریق نوآوری باز در کسب‌وکارهای کوچک و متوسط"، فصلنامه رشد فناوری، سال دوازده، شماره 48، پاییز 1395.
[6]   حاجیانی، ابراهیم؛ "معیارهای ارزیابی روش شناختی تکنیک‏های مطالعات آینده"، فصلنامه راهبرد، سال بیستم، شماره 59، تابستان 1390.
[7]     حسینی، مریم؛ معرفی روش گروه کانونی و کاربرد آن در تحقیقات، مرکز پژوهش و سنجش افکار، 1394.
[8]     لتوسلیتی، لیا(ترجمه: ابراهیمی لویه، عادل؛ حقیقی، فریبا)؛ کاربرد گروههای کانونی در پژوهش، 1392.
[9]     Von Nell, P. S.; Lichtenthaler, U.; "Innovation intermediaries: a case study of", International Journal Technology Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 7, pp. 215-231, 2011.
[10] Bessant, John; Rush, Howard; "Building bridges for innovation: the role of consultants in technology transfer", Research Policy, Vol. 24, issue 1, pp. 97-114, 1995.
[11] Schaarschmidt, M.; Kilian, T.; "Impediments to customer integration into the innovation process: A case study in the telecommunications industry", European Management Journal, 2013.
[12] Li-Hong, Han; "Innovation of Balanced Scorecard on the Theory and Practice", Proceedings of the International Conference on machine learning and Cybernrtics, Guilin, pp. 10-13, 2011.
[13] Naranjo-Valencia, J.C.; Valle, R.S.; Jime'nez, D.J.n.; "Organizational culture as determinant of product innovation", European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 466-480, 2010.
[14] Jensen, Morten Berg; Johnson, Bjorn; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt Ake; "Forms of knowledge and modes of innovation", Research Policy, Vol. 36, 2007.
[15] YE, J. Kankanhalli, A.; "Exploring innovation through open networks: A review and initial research questions", IIMB Management Review, pp. 1-14,2013.
[16] Rohrbeck, R.; Hölzle, K.; Gemünden, H. G.; "Opening up for competitive advantage–How Deutsche Telekom creates an open innovation ecosystem",R&D Management, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 420-430, 2009.
[17] De Araújo Burcharth, A. L.; et al.; "Neither invented nor shared here: The impact and management of attitudes for the adoption of open innovation practices", Technovation, Vol. 34, No.3, pp. 149-161, 2014.
[18] Enkel, E.; Gassmann, O.; "Driving open innovation in the front end. The IBM case", Working Paper University of St. Gallen and Zeppelin University, St. Gallen and Friedrichshafen, 2008.
[19] Chesbrough, H.; Crowther, AK.; "Beyond high tech: early adopters of open innovation in other industries", R&D Manag, Vol. 36, 2006.
[20] Wielens, R.; "Accelerating the innovation cycle through intermediation: The case of Kraft’s melt-proof chocolate bars‏", Elsevier: Cambridge, UK, pp. 62-73, 2013.
[21] Lazzarotti, Valentina; Manzini, Raffaella; "Different Modes of Open Innovation: A Theoretical Framework and an Empirical Study", International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2009.
[22] Ades, C.; Figlioli, A.; Sbragia, R.; Porto, G.; Plonski, G.; Celadon, K.; "Implementing open innovation: The case of Natura, IBM and siemens", Journal of Technology Management & Innovation; Vol. 8, pp.12-25, 2013.
[23] Ye, Jonathan; Kankanhalli, Atreyi; "Exploring innovation through open networks: A review and initial research questions", IIMB Management Review, Vol. 25, Issue 2, pp. 69-82, 2013.
[24] Nilsson, Magnus; Sia-Ljungström, Clarissa; "The Role of Innovation Intermediaries in Innovation Systems”,  International European  Forum, Innsbruck-Igls, Austria, 2013.
[25] Howells, Jeremy; "Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation”, Research Policy, Vol. 35, pp. 715–728, 2006.
[26] Aquilani, Barbara; Abbate, Tindara; Dominici, Gandolfo; "Choosing Open Innovation Intermediaries through their web-based platforms", International Journal of Digital Accounting Research, Vol. 16, pp. 35-60, 2016.
[27] Winch, M.; Graham, Courtney, Roger; "The Organization of Innovation Brokers: An International Review", Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 19, Issue 6, 2007.
[28] Stewart, James; Hyysalo, Sampsa; "Intermediaries, Users and Social Learning In Technological Innovation", International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2008.
[29] Lopez, H.; Vanhaverbeke, W.; "How innovation intermediaries are shaping the technology market? An analysis of their business model", Retrieved from, 2009.
[30] Bakici, Tuba; Almirall, Wareham; Esteve, Jonathan; "The Underlying Mechanisms of Online Open Innovation Intermediaries", ESADE WORKING PAPER, No. 237, 2012.
[31] FLENSBURG, P.; "An enhanced communication model", The International Journal of Digital Accounting Research, Vol. 9, pp. 31-43. 2009.  
[32] Diener, K.; Piller, F. T.; "The Market for Open Innovation: Increasing the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the innovation process", Raleigh, NC: Lulu Inc, 2010.
[33] Lopez-Vega, H.; "How Demand-Driven Technological Systems Of Innovation Work?", The Role of Intermediary Organizations, In Druiddime Academy PhD, 2009.
[34] Evans, D.S.; Schmalensee, R.; "The industrial organization of markets with two-sided platforms", National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
[35] Rochet, J.-C.; Tirole, J.; "Two-sided markets: An overview", Institut d’Economie Industrielle working paper, 2004.
[36] Rysman, M.; "The economics of two-sided markets", Journal of Economics Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 125–43, 2009.
[37] Wright, J.; "One-sided logic in two-sided markets", Review of Network Economics, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 44–64, 2004.
[38] Intarakumnerd, Patarapong; Chaoroenporn, Peera; "The roles of intermediaries and the development of their capabilities in sectoral innovation systems: A case study of Thailand", Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, Vol. 21, Issue 1, 2013.
[39] Sieg JH; Wallin MW; Von Krough G.; "Managerial challenges in open innovations:
intermediation in the chemical industry
", R&D Management, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 281–91, 2010.
[40] Pittaway, L.; Robertson, M.; Munir, K.; Denyer, D.; Neely, A.; "Networking and innovation: a systematic review of the evidence", Int. J. Manag. Rev., Vol. 5, 2004.
[41] Dhanaraj, C.; Parkhe, A.; "Orchestrating innovation networks", Acad. Manage. Rev, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 659–669, 2006.
[42] Den Hertog, P.; "Knowledge-intensive business services as co-producers of innovation", Int. J. Innov. Manag. Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 491–528, 2000.
[43] Verona, G.; Prandelli, E.; Sawhney, M.; "Innovation and Virtual Environments: Towards Virtual Knowledge Brokers", In: Organization Studies, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 765-788, 2006.
[44] Van Lente, H.; Hekkert, M.; Smits, R.; Van Waveren, B.; "Roles of systemic intermediaries in transition processes", Int. J. Innov. Manag. Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 1–33, 2003.
[45] Seaton, R. A. F.;  Cordey-Hayes, M.; "The development andapplication of interactive models of industrial technology transfer", Technovation, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 45–53, 1993.
[46] Winch, GM; Courtney, R.; "The organization of innovation brokers: an international review", Technol Analy Strategy Manag, Vol. 19, pp. 747–763, 2007.
[47] Hargadon, A.; Sutton, R.; "Technology brokering and innovation in product development firm", Administrative Science Quartely, Vol. 42, No 4, pp. 716-749. 1997.
[48] Sawhney, M.; Prandelli, E.; Verona, G.; "The Power of innomediation", MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 4, 2003.
[49] Spulber, D.F.; Market microstructure: Intermediaries and the theory of the firm, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
[50] W.H.A. Johnson, Roles; "Resources and benefits of intermediate organizations supporting triple helix collaborative R&D: the case of Precarn", Technovation, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 495–505, 2008.
[51] Laschewski, L.; Phillipson, J.; Gorton, M.; "The facilitation and formalisation of small business networks: evidence from the North East of England ", Environmentand Planning C: Government and Policy, Vol. 20, pp. 375–391, 2002.
[52] Huggins, R.; "The success and failure of policy-implanted inter-firm network initiatives: motivations, processes and structure ", Entrep. Reg. Dev, Vol. 12, pp. 111–113, 2000.
[53] Bougrain, F.; Haudeville, B.; "Innovation, collaboration and SMEs internal research capacities", Res. Policy, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 735–747, 2002.
[54] Hekkert, M.P.; Suurs, R.A.A.; Negro, S.O.; Kuhlmann, S.; Smits, R.E.H.M.; "Functions of innovation systems: a new approach for analysing technological change ", Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, Vol. 74, No. 4, pp. 413–432, 2007.
[55] Autio, E.; Kanninen, S.; Gustafsson, R.; "First- and second-order additionality and learning outcomes in collaborative R&D programs", Res. Policy, Vol. 37, No.1, pp. 59–76, 2008.
[56] Hassink, R.; "Technology transfer agencies and regional economic development", Eur. Plan. Stud. Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 167–184, 1996.
[57] Pollard, D.; "Innovation and Technology Transfer Intermediaries: A Systemic International Study", in Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies ofWork Teams, pp. 137–174, 2006.
[58] Kolodny, H.; Stymne, B.; Shani, R.; Figuera, J.R.; Lillrank, P.; "Design and policy choices for technology extension organizations", Research Policy, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 201–225, 2001.
[59] Winch, G.M.; Courtney, R.; "The organization of innovation brokers: an international review", Technol. Anal. Strateg. Manag. Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 747–763, 2007
[60] Hearn, G.; Rooney, D.; "The future role of government in knowledge-based economies", Foresight, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 23–33, 2002.
[61] Nooteboom, B.; "Innovation and inter-firm linkages: new implications for policy", Res. Policy, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 793–805, 1999.
[62] Braun, D.; "Lasting tensions in research policy-making — a delegation problem", Sci. Public Policy, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 309–321, 2003.
[63] Cash, D. W.; "In order to aid in diffusing useful and practical information", Agricultural extension and boundary organizations,” Science, Technology & Human Values, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 431 –453, 2001.
[64] Klerkx, L.; Leeuwis, C.; "Establishment and embedding of innovation brokers at different innovation system levels: Insights from the Dutch agricultural sector", Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol 76, No. 6, pp. 849–860, 2009.
[65] Smits, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; "The rise of systemic instruments in innovation policy", Int. J. Foresight and Innovation Policy, Vol. 1, pp. 4–30, 2004.
[66] Verona, G.; Prandelli, E.; Sawhney, M.; "Innovation and virtual environments: towards virtual knowledge brokers", Organ Stud; Vol. 27, pp. 755–88. 2006.
[67] Munkongsujarit, S.; Srivannaboon, S.; "Key success factors for open innovation intermediaries for SMEs: A case study of iTAP in Thailand", in Technology Management in the Energy Smart World (PICMET), Proceedings of PICMET, 2011.
[68] Lichtenthaler, Ulrich; "The Collaboration of Innovation Intermediaries and Manufacturing Firms in the Markets for Technology", Production Innovation Management, Vol. 30, pp. 142–158, 2013.
[69] Evans, P.; Wurster, T.; Blown to bits. How the new economics of information transforms strategy, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 1999.
[70] Abbate, Tindara; Coppolino, Raffaella; Schiavone, Francesco; "Linking Entities in Knowledge Transfer: The Innovation Intermediaries", Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Vol. 4, pp. 233–243, 2013.
[71] Agogue, M.; Berthet, E.; Fredberg, T.; LE Masson, P.; Segrestin, B.; Stoetzel, M.; Wiener, M.; Ystrom.; "A Contingency Approach to Open Innovation Intermediaries: The Management Principles of the “Intermediary of the Unknown", Paper presents at the 13 Conference of European Academy of Management (EURAM), Instanbul/TR, 26-29 June, 2013.
[72] Hakanson, L.; Caessens, P.; Macaulay, S.; "InnovationXchange: a case study in innovation intermediation", Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, Vol. 13, pp. 261-274, 2011
[73] Lichtenthaler, U.; Ernst, H.; "Intermediary services in the markets for technology: Organizational antecedents and performance consequences", Organ Stud, Vol. 29, No. 7, 2008.
[74] Lakhani, K.; Jeppesen, L.B.; Lohse, P.A.; Panetta, J.A.; "The Value of Openness in Scientific Problem Solving", Harvard Business School Working Paper, 07-050, 2007.
[75] Gassmann, O.; Daiber, M.; Enkel, E.; "The role of intermediaries in cross-industry innovation processes", R&D Management, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 457-469, 2011.
[76] Wright, Rick W.; Brand, Richard A.; Dunn, Warren; Spindler, Kurt P.; "How to Write a Systematic Review", Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol. 455, pp. 23–29, 2007.
[77] Holzmann, Thomas; Saile, Klaus; R. Katzy, Bernhard.; “Matchmaking as multi-sided market for open innovation”; Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 601–615, 2014.
[78] Meyer, Morgan; Kearnes, Matthew; “Introduction to special section: Intermediaries between science”, policy and the market, Science and Public Policy, Vol. 40, pp. 423–429, 2013.