Document Type : Research Paper


1 university of Yazd

2 University of Newcastle


The costs of earliness and tardiness are considered as the major challenge of research and development projects. These projects need a more effective method for scheduling and control. Such methods help executives to properly detect the deviations of strategic projects from performance baseline and to adopt appropriate decisions about project activities. In this regard, the Earned Value Method (EVM) can be applied effectively. In this study, a scheduling algorithm is introduced to have high efficiency in minimizing the total earliness and tardiness costs. Practitioners can precisely predict the total time and cost of the project and also adopt appropriate decisions to prevent strategic projects from further financial losses using this technique. The execution of the proposed approach in real cases revealed that it lessens the total costs of earliness and tardiness. Furthermore, the efficiency of the proposed technique in solving the problem was compared to scheduling algorithms in previous studies. In this regard, the TTR index was used that represents the total earliness and tardiness time divided by the project time. The results showed that the proposed algorithm has higher efficiency in minimizing the total costs of earliness and tardiness in research and development projects.


Main Subjects

[1]      رحیم زاده، مریم؛ خلیل زاده، محمد؛ سلطانی، رویا؛ "شناسایی عوامل موثر برپیاده سازی مدیریت دانش در سازمان­های پروژه محورعمرانی (رویکردی از معادلات ساختاری)"، فصلنامه توسعه تکنولوژی صنعتی، دوره 16، شماره 32، صص 72-57، 1397.
[2]      میرزارمضانی، ابوالفضل؛ گلستان هاشمی، سیدمهدی؛ ناصریان، سیدمحمد مسعود؛ "ارائه مدل مدیریت ریسک‌های فناورانه در فرآیند توسعه محصول جدید با رویکرد TRIZ"، فصلنامه توسعه تکنولوژی صنعتی،  دوره 16، شماره 32، صص 56-39، 1397.
[3]      عظیم زاده، مهدی؛ زمان­بندی بهنگام فعالیت­های یک پروژه با هدف حداقل کردن هزینه های زودکرد و دیرکرد، پایان­نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته مهندسی صنایع، دانشگاه یزد، ایران، 1390.
[4]      افشار نجفی، بهروز؛ یک الگوریتم شاخه و کران با هدف کمینه‌سازی ارزش فعلی خالص‌هزینه‌های زودکرد - دیرکرد برای مساله زمان‌بندی پروژه با منابع نامحدود،رساله دکتری، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، ایران، 1387.
[5]      افشار نجفی، بهروز؛ شادرخ، شهرام؛ "یک الگوریتم برای زمان­بندی پروژه با هدف کمینه کردن هزینه­های تنزیل شده زودکرد - دیرکرد فعالیت­هاپنجمین کنفرانس ملی مهندسی صنایع، تهران، 1386.
[6]     Tanaka., S.; Araki, M.; “An exact algorithm for the single-machine total weighted tardiness problem with sequence-dependent setup times”, Computers & Operations Research, Vol. 40, pp. 344 –352, 2012.
[7]     Amor, J. P.; “Scheduling programs with repetitive projects using composite learning carve approximations”, International journal of project management, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 16-29, 2002.
[8]     Munoz-Villamizar, A.; Santos, J.; Montoya-Torres, J.; Alvarez, M.J; “Improving effectiveness of parallel machine scheduling with earliness and tardiness costs: A case study”, International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations, Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 375-392, 2019.
[9]     Villafanez, F.; Poza, D.; Lopez-Paredes, A.; Pajares, J.; Olmo, R.; “A generic heuristic for multi-project scheduling problems with global and local resource constraints (RCMPSP)”, Soft Computing, Vol. 23, Issue 10, pp. 3465-3479, 2019.
[10] Tian, J.; Hao, X.; Gen, M.; “A hybrid multi-objective EDA for robust resource constraint project scheduling with uncertainty”, Computers and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 130, pp. 317-326, 2019.
[11] Schmidt. T.; Strategic Project Management Made Simple: Practical Tools for Leaders and Teams, Wiley, 2009.
[12] Cioffi, D. F.; “A tool for managing projects, analytic parameterization of the S-curve”, International journal of project management, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 215–222, 2005.
[13] Bell, C. E.; Park, K.; “Solving resource constrained project scheduling problems”, Navel Research Logistic, Vol. 37, No. 8, pp. 19 – 38, 1990.
[14] Elmaghraby, S. E.; “The one – machine sequencing problem with delay costs”, journal of industrial Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 12-24, 1968.
[15] Patterson, J. H.; Talbot, B. F.; Slowinski, R.; Weglavez, J.; “Computational experience with the back tracking algorithm for solving a problems”, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 49, No. 11, pp. 68 – 79, 1990.
[16] Davis, E.W.; Patterson, J. H.; “A comparison of heuristic and optimum solutions in resource-constrained project scheduling”,Management Science, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. 15-27, 1975.
[17] Khattab, M.; Choobineh, F.; “A new approach for project scheduling with limited resource”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 185-198, 1991.
[18] Talbot. B.; “Resource constrained project scheduling with time – resource tradeoffs the non-preemptive case”, Management science, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 1197 – 1210, 1982
[19] Kolish, R.; Hartman, K.; “Heuristic algorithms for solving the resource – constrained project scheduling problem: classification and computational analysis”, Project scheduling, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 147-178, 1999.
[20] Blazewicz, J.; Lenstra, J. K.; Rinnooy Ken, H. G.; “Scheduling project to resource constraints, classification and complexity”,Discrete Applied Mathematics, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 47-61, 1983.
[21] Lova, A.; Tormos, P.; “Analysis of scheduling schemes and heuristic Rules Performance in resource-constrained multi project scheduling”, Annals of Operations Research, Vol. 102, No. 10, pp. 263-286, 2001.
[22] Ghazanfari, M.; shahanaghi. K.; Yousefi, A.; “An application of possibility Goal programing to the time-cost trade-off problem”,International journal of Engineering and science, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 127-136. 2009.
[23] Eshtehardian, E.; Abbasnia, R.; Afshar, A.; “Optimization of uncertain construction time-cost trade- off problem”, International journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 14-25. 2008
[24] Rose, K. H.; “Review of earned value project Management”, International journal of Project Management, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 48-57. 2003
[25] Liu, Q.; Geng, X.; Dong, M.; Lv, W.; Ye, C.; “Scheduling optimization of design stream line for production research and development projects”, Engineering Optimization, Vol. 49, Issue 5, pp. 896-914, 2017.
[26] Cioffi, D. F.; “Completing projects according to plans: An Earned Value Improvement Index”, International journal of Operations Research Society, Vol. 24, No. 10, pp. 168–182, 2005.
[27] Amor, J. P., Leplitc, C. J.; “An efficient approximation project composite learning curves”, International journal of Project Management, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 28-42, 1995.
[28] Kurtulus, I.; Davrs, E. W.; “Multi – Project: Categorization of heuristic rules performance”, Management Science, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 161 – 172, 1982.
[29] Anbari, F.; “Earned value method extensions”,International journal of project management, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 12-23, 2003.
[30] Bell, C. E, Han, A; “A new heuristic solution method in Resource – constrained project scheduling”, Navel-research logistic, Vol. 38, No. 9, pp.151-163, 1991.
[31] Mendes, J. J. M.; Goncalves, J. F.; Resende, M. G.; “A random key based genetic algorithm for the resource constrained project”, Computer and Operation Research, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 92-109, 2009.
[32] Montoya-torres, T. R.; Gutierrez-Franc, E.; Pirachican, C.; Project scheduling with limited Resource using a genetic algorithm, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 50-65, 2009.
[33] Christofides, N.; Alvares, R.; Valdes, R.; Tamarit, J. M.; “Project with resource constraints a branch and bound approach”, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp.181-192, 1987.
[34] Demeulemeester, E.; Herroelen, W.; “A branch and bound procedure for the multiple resource–constrained project scheduling problem”, Management Science, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp.1803-1818. 1992.
[35] Herroelen, W.; Reyck, B. D.; Demeulemeestar, E.; “Project scheduling a survey of recent developments resource constrained”, Operation Research and Computers, Vol. 24, No. 8, pp. 279-302, 1998.
[36] Davis, E. W.; Heidorn, G. E.; “An algorithm for optimal project scheduling under  multiple Resource constraints”, Management Science, Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 803-816, 1991.