Document Type : Research Paper


1 Member of the faculty of science policy group of the Center for Research in Political Science of the country

2 Faculty Member of Science Policy Department, National Research for Science Policy


In a network economy, the competitive strength of a business depends not only on its own merits, but also on its ability to interact with its environment. The emergence of multidimensional platforms, value creation networks, related complexities, and weaknesses in business models in this field have attracted the attention of researchers to the concept of business ecosystem. In this study, with the aim of examining business ecosystem design models, first the literature and concept of business ecosystem, and then the various types of its design are introduced. Finally, the design principles of business ecosystem are extracted and used in the design of the emerging ones. The present study is descriptive type, and in order to gather the information we have used the experts’ views in addition to library studies. The final output of the emerging business environment design research project, including native search engine, cloud computing, internet of things, and big data will be comprehensive in the near future, based on information provided by stakeholders / actors with related services, communications between actors and their role in creating value flows.


[1]      حسنی، علی؛ بسته نگار، مهرنوش؛ گردشگری خلاق: از تبیین مدل مفهومی تا پایداری اکوسیستم، دانشگاه غیر دولتی غیر انتفاعی علم و فرهنگ، 1396.
[2]      بسته نگار، مهرنوش؛ مدل تحلیل شبکه اجتماعی اکوسیستم گردشگری شهر خلاق رشت، رساله دکتری، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ تهران، 1397.  
[3]      یاری، علیرضا؛ همکاران؛ طراحی مدل زیست­بوم جویشگر بومی، پژوهشکده ارتباطات و فناوری اطلاعات، 1394.
[4]      یاری، علیرضا؛ همکاران؛(1394ب). گزارش طراحی مدل ارزیابی کسب­وکارها در سامانه طرح جویشگر بومی، پژوهشکده ارتباطات و فناوری اطلاعات، 1394.
[5]      Adner, Ron; Kapoor, Rahul; “Value creation in innovation ecosystems: How the structure of technological interdependence affects firm performance in new technology generations”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 306–333, 2010.
[6]      Allee, Verna; “Value network analysis and value conversion of tangible and intangible assets”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 9, Issue 1, pp. 5–24, 2008.
[7]      Adner, Ron; “Match your innovation strategy to your innovation ecosystem”, Harvard Business Review, April 2006.
[8]      Allee, Verna; “Reconfiguring the value network”, Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 36–39, July–Aug 2000
[9]      Moore, J. F.; The death of competition: leadership and strategy in the age ofbusiness ecosystems, New York, Harper Business, ISBN-10: 0887308503, 1996.
[10]  Anggraeni, E.; Hartigh, E. D.; Zegveld, M.; Business ecosystem as a perspective for studying the relations between firms and their business networks, ECCON, 2007.  
[11]  Karhiniemi, M.; “Creating and Sustaining Successful Business Ecosystems, Heslsinki: HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS (HSE)”, Information Systems Science, Master's thesis, 2009.
[12]  Hartigh, E.; Tol, M.; Visscher, W.; The Health Measurement of a Business Ecosystem, Delft University of Technology, ECCON Annual meeting, 2006.
[13]  Iansiti, M.; Levien, R.; Keystones and Dominators: Framing the Operational Dynamics of Business Ecosystems, Harvard Business School, 2002.
[14]  Iansiti, M.; Levien, R.; “Strategy as ecology”, Harvard Business Review, March, pp. 68-78, 2004.
[15]  Camarinha-Matos, L. M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.; “Ecolead: A Holistic Approach to Creation And Management Of Dynamic Virtual Organizations”, Collaborative Networks and their Breeding Environments, IFIP — The International Federation for Information Processing, pp. 3-16, 2005.
[16]  Brody, S. D.; Cash, S. B.; Dyke, J.; Thornton, S.; “Motivations for the forestry industry to participate in collaborative ecosystem management initiatives”, Forest Policy and Economics ,Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 123–134, 2006.
[17]  Iyer, B.; Lee, Ch.-H.; Venkatraman, N.; “Managing in a “Small World Ecosystem: Some Lessons from the Software Sector”, TO APPEAR IN CALIFORNIA, 2011.  
[18]  Tian, C. H.; Ray, B. K.; Lee, J.; Cao, R.; Ding, W.;  “A framework for business ecosystem analysis and modeling”, IBM SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Vol. 7, No 1, 2008.
[19]  Nachira, F.; Nicolai, A.; Dini, P.; Louarn, M.; Leon, L.; Digital Business Ecosystems, 2002.
[20]  Adner, Ron; Rahul, Kapoor; “Value creation in innovation ecosystems: How the structure of technological interdependence affects firm performance in new technology generations”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 306–333, 2010.
[21]  NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap Working Group NIST Cloud Computing Program Information Technology Laboratory. version 2  
Gubbi, J.; Buyya, R.; Marusic, S.; Palaniswami, M.; “Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions”, Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 1645 – 1660, 2013